Brief Layover in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City.

The official name of a city re-named for the revered revolutionary who defeated French and American powers to unite the country we now know as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

(French and American tourists, of course, still stubbornly call it “Saigon” to this day.)

Looking out the window on the bus to the city centre from the airport, I’d wondered what to make of the eye-catching propaganda billboards in the city I’d worked in so many years ago. How much of an indication were they that there remained a certain innocence in relation to commercial things, a relatively sweet, laid-back calm/inertia from a lifetime of state-sponsored welfare?

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)Amidst the roundabouts of relentless beeping of motorcycles and honking of cars, and the fumes of old exhaust pipes that made commuters cough up phlegm behind their cloth masks, and shiny new buildings jostling against the yet-to-be-bought-out crumbling ones, the Bitexco Financial Tower stood shining in the afternoon sun, holding aloft a helipad – like the Statue of Liberty and her torch.

Bitexco Financial Tower. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Thanks to Đổi Mới, perestroika-like economic liberalisation, HCMC had taken on the feel of the capital of her capitalist Thai neighbour, Bangkok.

Commercial signboards and advertising were more in evidence:

motorcycles at a roundabout. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

And in Ben Thanh Market, where formerly, you had to rouse a sleepy salesgirl to ask a question, you were now preyed upon aggressively once you entered its shady confines. “Hellloooo. You buy something. Cheap!” called out the predators as you attempted to navigate the narrow alleys between stalls. Some reached you in time to tug a sleeve, or thrust a mass-produced souvenir into your chest.

“I give you good price!”, they chorused, making no effort at all to extol the virtues of their wares,”Buy some thing!”

In the food section, my favourite stall had shuttered for the day,

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

leaving me at the mercy of the food touts. I ordered a Bún bò Huế, and sat down. Some time later, I was given a pho bo.

“Sorry I think I ordered Bún bò Huế?”
“Yes, yes.” said the woman, and hurried off. A few minutes later, I saw her waving a menu at tourists. There was no one fixing a Bún bò Huế.
I hailed a man who seemed to be somewhat related to the enterprise.
“I ordered a Bún bò Huế but this is a pho bo.”
“Okay, okay,” he said, and showed me the menu.
“No. This is not Bún bò Huế.”
“Okay, okay, this is Bún bò Huế.” he said, and gestured at what was obviously the wrong colour for such a dish, and left with the menu.
It took a third attempt with a different member of the jolly gang to have someone make me a Bún bò Huế.

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Bún bò Huế, Benh Than Market, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

It was difficult to tell if this was lack of language ability or an attempt to cheat the tourist. I’d plump for the former, since the man was quite apologetic after.

(What did this mean then for the training we’d done for some local friends? When they’d nodded and appeared to have agreed, could those gestures have meant nothing more than the acknowledgement that we’d said something? Though what, exactly, might have been a mystery to them?)

While this little skit was unfolding, I noticed a stream of people rocking up to the stall across the way. Banana fritters.

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Banana fritters from Ben Thanh Market. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
Banana fritters from Ben Thanh Market. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
The woman deep-frying the local bananas smiled with her eyes, and indicated that she was happy for me to take some photos. There was soon a fresh queue of people staring hungrily at the boiling oil, plastic bags ready to receive the golden crunchy snacks.

8,000 VND each (S$0.48, £0.24), the chuối chiên were tummy-warmingly good – the ratio of tasty crisp batter to hot sweet banana was just right.

The squares of recycled English language class notes though, were dodgy. Excuse I, I’m afraid I regret informing you that did not meet my expectations.

Dodgy English language notes. Banana fritters from Ben Thanh Market. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
Dodgy English language notes. Banana fritters from Ben Thanh Market. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Felt the sting of God’s judgement at Babel quite badly. How marvellous a reversal the gift of tongues recorded in the Acts of the Apostles must have been – to finally be able to tell the good news to other nations. Yet, how desperate it is that such a gift isn’t quite widespread.

An incoming deacon at our small church recently suggested strongly that we stop mission trips to other countries. After all, he reasoned, there was so much work done with very little visible fruit – the translation work, the travelling, the inability to communicate effectively once there… Why not just stay in Singapore where people speak English?

And yet, and yet…
globe roundabout. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)



To get to the city center from Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport, walk out of the Arrivals hall.
bus from Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

You can either take the air-conditioned yellow 109 bus (mostly for tourists) to the bus interchange across from Ben Thanh market for 20,000 VND (S$1.22, £0.61):

yellow bus from Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
yellow bus from Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport to city center. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

bus ticket for yellow 109 bus from Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

or just 30m further along, where there are green-ish seats but no ticketing booth, take the local air-conditioned 152 bus to the same interchange for 5,000 VND (S$0.30, £0.15):
green 152 bus to city center, from airport. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

green bus from bus interchange to Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
ticket for green bus from city center to Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport . Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Conspicuous Authenticity, but not in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), VietnamLondon -> Harwich -> Hoek of Holland -> Amsterdam (Holland) -> Copenhagen (Denmark) -> Stockholm (Sweden) -> Riga (Latvia) -> Moscow (Russia) -> [Trans-siberian or Trans-mongolian Express] -> Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) -> [Trans-mongolian Express] -> Beijing (China) -> Hong Kong (SAR, China) -> Guangzhou (China) -> Nanning (Guangxi, China) -> Hanoi (Vietnam) -> [Reunification Express] -> Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)

What was refreshing about Ho Chi Minh City (aka. Saigon) was the continued lack of conspicuous authenticity. Being a city just getting a dip into the conspicuous consumption pool, it was still way behind the next wave of status competition: conspicuous authenticity.

park, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
songbirds in a park, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
crickets as food for songbirds, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
mealworms for songbirds, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
exercising in a park, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
dance practice? Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
broom and basket, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
more dance practice, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
exercise equipment in a park, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), VietnamIn contemporary advertising in other cities, a fundamental marketing technique is to appeal to the authenticity of the product.

Andrew Potter, in The Authenticity Hoax: Conspicuous Authenticity,suggests that it is Denis Diderot’s portrayal of the titular nephew in Rameau’s Nephew that transformed authenticity from a quest for individual freedom and self-fulfilment into a marketing strategy. His awareness that his sponging off various rich people was “the beggar’s pantomime”, said G.W.F. Hegel, made him “the avatar of a new individual consciousness” that “looks upon the authoritative power of the state as a chain…obeys only with secret malice and stands ever ready to burst out in rebellion.”

Now however, such awareness is so familiar and ubiquitous that there is no one who does not consider himself to be as Rameau’s nephew, an anti-hero of authenticity. Inauthenticity is a cuss word we use on other people – office drones, government lackeys, yuppies etc.

Perhaps, Joshua Glenn argues in Fake Authenticity, the nephew’s “cultivated alienation and easy nonconformity”, far from making him an anti-hero of authenticity, makes him the archetypical hero of fake authenticity, “the face of hip capitalism, and an architect of consumer dissatisfaction and of perpetual obsolescence”. If one defines authenticity as “a struggle against received truths, inherited contingencies, any ideology (in the Frankfurt School sense of the word) which impedes the possibility of freeing oneself — and others — from all forms of oppression”, then authenticity itself has become an ideology.

Elsewhere, simulacra is what Jean Baudrillard famously calls things that aren’t copies of the real but constructed to resemble expectations of what that the real is to look like, and therefore becoming real in themselves while bearing no connection with the thing it is meant to resemble in reality.

And there is much demand for such simulacra.

tea and sweets, Ben Thanh Market, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
flowers, Ben Thanh Market, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
alleyway of pedicure and manicure shops, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
paintbrushes for sale on a street, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam“Over the course of the twentieth century, the dominant North American leisure class underwent three distinct changes, each market by shifts in the relevant status symbols, rules for display, and advancement strategies. The first change was from the quasi-aristocratic conspicuous leisure of Veblen’s time to the bourgeouis conspicuous consumption that marked the growing affluence of the first half of the twentieth century, a pattern of status competition commonly referred to as “keeping up with the Joneses”. The next change was from bourgeois consumerism to a stance of cultivate non-conformity that is variously known as “cool”. “hip”, or “alternative”. This form of status-seeking emerged out of the critique of mass society as it was picked up by the 1960s counterculture, and as it became the dominant status system of urban life, we saw the emergence of what we call “rebel” or “hip” consumerism. The rebel consumer goes to great lengths to show that he is not a dupe of advertising, that he does not follow the crowd, expressing his politics and his individuality through the consumption of products that have a rebellious or out-of-the-mainstream image – underground bands, hip-hop fashions, skateboarding shoes”. [Comment: oops, i guess that’s all tired and old mainstream now.]

“Norman Mailer set the agenda in the 1950s when he wrote that society was divided into two types of people: the hip (“rebels”) and the square (“conformists”). Cool (or hip, alternative, edgy) here becomes the universal stance of individualism, with the hipster as the resolute non-conformist refusing to bend before the homogenizing forces of mass society. In other words, the notion of cool only ever made sense as a foil to something else, that is, a culture dominated by mass media such as national television stations, wide-circulation magazines and newspapers, and commercial record labels. The hipster makes a political statement by rejecting mass society and its conformist agenda.”

“Cool fizzled out when it was exposed as just another consumerist status hierarchy, and when it passed so deeply and so self-consciously into the mainstream that it became simply embarrassing.” [Comment: hence the very popular threadless T-shirt “I listen to bands that don’t even exist yet“]

“But status, like power, abhors a vacuum…The trick now is to subtly demonstrate that while you may have a job, a family, and a house full of stuff, you are not spiritually connected to any of it. what matters now is not just buying things, it is taking time for you, to create a life that is focused on your unique needs and that reflects your particular taste and sensibility.”

“Do you subscribe to an organic-vegetable delivery service? Do you believe that life is too short to drink anything but wine straight from the terroir? Do you fill your house with heirlooms, antiques, or objets d’art that can’t be bought anywhere or at any price? For your next vacation, are you going to skip the commercialised parts of Europe or Asia and just rent yourself a cabin in British Columbia or a farmhouse in Portugal, away from all the tourists and the people trying to sell you stuff? Welcome to the competitive and highly lucrative world of conspicuous authenticity.”

“Conspicuous authenticity raises the stakes by turning the search for the authentic into a matter of utmost gravity: not only does it provide me with a meaningful life, but it is also good for society, the environment, even the entire planet.”

Andrew Potter then uses organic produce as case study. About 15 years ago, organic food was exclusively consumed by certain enlightened people. It was essential to authentic living and, to quote Mark Bittman, “the magic cure-all, synonymous with eating well, healthfully, sanely, even ethically”. When organic produce became so popular that produce was easily obtained in huge stores like Whole Foods and Walmart, the standard of authenticity shifted: locavores started to extol the benefits of locally grown food as tastier, fresher, more environmentally-friendly (all of which are subject to debate). The 100-mile diet, says Potter, is an illustration of this one-upmanship, “the trend of turning environmental authenticity-seeking into a competitive anti-consumption publicity stunt”.

Authenticity is a “positional good that derives its value from the force of invidious comparison. You can only be a truly authentic person as long as most of the people around you are not.”

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
cooked snails, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), VietnamIn other news, please note how eating local food with the locals makes my travels oh so very much more authentic (tone: dripping sarcasm):
Bún mắm stall, Ben Thanh Market, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
Bún mắm stall, Ben Thanh Market, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), VietnamBún mắm stall, Bến Thành market

iced Vietnamese coffee, iced Vietnamese tea, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnamiced Vietnamese coffee, to be washed down with complimentary iced Vietnamese tea, on a sidewalk

Luong Son (Bo Tung Xeo). Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
Luong Son (Bo Tung Xeo). Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam
fried crickets, Luong Son (Bo Tung Xeo), Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), VietnamLuong Son (Bo Tung Xeo)

(On the way home, a Vietnamese girl stopped me to ask for directions in the vernacular. Again, I unthinkingly replied in English. She was so shocked she giggled into her hand and fled.)

Now this guy was authentic:
evangelist, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam“Hello,” he said to an American backpacker waiting for her bus,”I am Vietnam evangelist. I want to tell you about Jesus.”

*part of a read-through of Andrew Potter’s The Authenticity Hoax

**also part of a photo-journal of my journey overland from London to Singapore